金橋先生の論文がCommun. Biol.に掲載


金橋先生の論文がCommunications Biologyに受諾されました。


Kanahashi T, Matsubayashi J, Imai H, Yamada S, Otani H, Takakuwa T. Sexual dimorphism of the human fetal pelvis exists at the onset of primary ossification, Communications Biology, 2024, 7:538, https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-024-06156-y

Human adolescent and adult skeletons exhibit sexual dimorphism in the pelvis. However, the degree of sexual dimorphism of the human pelvis during prenatal development remains unclear. Here, we performed high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging-assisted pelvimetry on 72 human fetuses (males [M]: females [F], 34:38; 21 sites) with crown-rump lengths (CRL) of 50–225 mm (the onset of primary ossification). We used multiple regression analysis to examine sexual dimorphism with CRL as a covariate. Females exhibit significantly smaller pelvic inlet anteroposterior diameters (least squares mean, [F] 8.4 mm vs. [M] 8.8 mm, P = 0.036), larger subpubic angle ([F] 68.1° vs. [M] 64.0°, P = 0.034), and larger distance between the ischial spines relative to the transverse diameters of the greater pelvis than males. Furthermore, the sacral measurements indicate significant sex-CRL interactions. Our study suggests that sexual dimorphism of the human fetal pelvis is already apparent at the onset of primary ossification.

岩佐さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾

岩佐さんの腹直筋腱画についての論文がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。MRI_DTIを用いて腹直筋腱画形成過程を検討しました。

  • 胎児期早期の腹直筋腱画形成過程について、数、大きさ、タイプ、側方性、性別による検討を拡散テンソル画像を用いて行った。
  • 両側の腱性交差の平均数は3.1(範囲:2.0-4.0)であり、21%の検体では腱性交差は2つだけであった。
  • 腱性交差の形成における帯状の違いは、これまでの成人の研究で観察されたものとほぼ一致していた。拡散テンソル画像は、腱性交差部形成の早期分化を検出することができ有用であった。

Iwasa Y, KanahashiT, ImaiH, OtaniH, YamadaS, Takakuwa T. Formation of tendinous intersections in the human fetal rectus abdominis, J Anatomy 2024, in press


Previous studies have poorly described the initial development process of the tendinous intersections of the rectus abdominis muscle (RAM). The present study aimed to observe the formation of tendinous intersections in the RAM during the early fetal period using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifteen human fetal specimens (crown-rump length [CRL]: 39.5–93.7 mm) were selected. Three-dimensional measurements revealed that Zone-4 (i.e., the zone between the pubic symphysis and the caudal base of the umbilical ring in the RAM) had a smaller width and was thicker than Zone-1 and Zone-2 (i.e., the zones between the costal arch and the cranial base of the umbilical ring) and Zone-3 (i.e., the zone at the umbilical ring). Characteristics of tendinous intersections in the RAM during the early fetal period were assessed according to number, size, type, laterality, and sex. The mean number of tendinous intersections on both sides was 3.1 (range: 2.0–4.0), and 21% of specimens had only two tendinous intersections, which was higher than that reported in previous adult studies. The present data suggest that the formation of tendinous intersections was still in progress in specimens with two tendinous intersections in the RAM and that the third tendinous intersection was formed in Zone-2. Ordinal logistic regression via generalized estimating equations revealed that the odds for a higher type of tendinous intersections in Zone-1 and Zone-2 were significantly higher than those in Zone-4 (adjusted odds ratio: 14.85, 8.84). The odds for the presence of incomplete types (tendinous intersections that could not completely transverse the RAM) in Zone-3 were significantly higher than those in Zone-1 (adjusted odds ratio: 7.4). The odds for missing tendinous intersections in Zone-4 were significantly higher than those in Zone-1 (adjusted odds ratio: 20.5). These zonal differences in the formation of tendinous intersections were consistent with those observed in previous adult studies. In this study, DTI detected tendinous intersections in a sample with a CRL of 45.8 mm (approximately 11 weeks of gestation), which is earlier than that in previous histological findings, indicating that the RAM does not have mature tendinous intersections until the 17th week of gestation. In conclusion, DTI could detect the premature differentiation of tendinous intersection formation. Our data may aid in elucidating the developmental processes of tendinous intersections in the RAM.

腎臓の高さの左右差についてがCongenital Anomaliesに掲載

腎臓の高さの左右差についてがCongenital Anomaliesに掲載されました。


Ishiyama-Takara H, Matsubayashi J, Yamada S, Tetsuya Takakuwa T, Height difference between the right and left metanephroi during early human fetal development, Congenit Anom 64(3) 164-166, 2024.

Marieさんの論文がPLos Oneに掲載

Marieさんの論文がPLoS Oneに掲載されました。PLoS Oneは査読が早い印象がありましたが、今回の初回の査読は7ヶ月もかかりました。読んでくれる研究者がみつからなかったのでしょうか。


Saizonou MA, Kitazawa H, Kanahashi T, Yamada S, Takakuwa T, Epithelial development of the urinary collecting system in the human embryo, PLOS ONE 19(4): e0301778. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0301778


The urinary collecting system (UCS) consists of organized ducts that collect urine from the nephrons and transport it to the ureter and bladder. Understanding the histogenesis of the UCS is critical. Thirty human embryos between the Carnegie stages (CS) 18 and 23 were selected from the Congenital Anomaly Research Center, Kyoto, Japan. Epithelia of the UCS, ureter, and bladder of each sample were randomly selected. Histological findings of the epithelia were analyzed according to the following criteria: type of epithelium, presence or absence of glycogen, percentage of migrated nuclei, percentage of cells in mitosis, and the surrounding mesenchyme. A thickened epithelium lining a narrow luminal cavity was observed in the pre-expanded pelvic specimens at CS18-CS23. At CS23, after pelvic expansion, the UCS showed a thin epithelium with a large luminal cavity mainly located on the early branches, whereas the epithelium covering the subsequent branches had medium thickness. Histological characteristics differed depending on the UCS part and sample stage. The degree of differentiation was evaluated, revealing that in CS18-CS23 pre-expanded pelvis specimens, the undifferentiated epithelium was found in the zeroth to third/fifth generation, whereas at CS23, after pelvic expansion, a differentiated epithelium covered the UCS zeroth to seventh generation. In a comparison of the urothelial epithelium between the UCS, ureter, and bladder, we found that urinary tract differentiation may be initiated in the bladder, followed by the ureter, UCS zeroth to seventh generations, and finally, UCS eighth to end generations. An understanding of the histogenesis of embryonic stage UCS can aid in the clinical management of congenital urinary tract defects and other diseases.



第129回解剖学会で発表しました(2024.3/21-23, 那覇)

DTIを用いたヒト胚子期における舌筋発生の検討 須藤紗帆、金橋徹、今井宏彦、山田重人、高桑徹也

拡散テンソル画像を用いた水晶体線維細胞の配向性の検討 八田桃佳、金橋徹、今井宏彦、大谷浩、山田重人、高桑徹也

ヒト胎児期初期における鼻腔・口腔の定量的観察 青江春菜、古田万紀子、金橋徹、今井宏彦、山田重人、高桑徹也

MRIを用いたヒト胎児における僧帽筋形成過程の解析 岩佐結生、金橋徹、今井宏彦、大谷浩、高桑徹也

ヒト中腸ループと腸間膜の経時的構造変化 ー生理的臍帯ヘルニア期から還納期ー  石田七彩、植田優生、掛谷真樹、松林潤、金橋徹、今井宏彦、山田重人、高桑徹也

ヒト胎児骨盤の性差の検討 金橋徹、松林潤、今井宏彦、山田重人、大谷浩、高桑徹也


高解像度MRIを用いたヒト胎児期初期における一次脳溝形成過程の検討 熊谷美優、金橋徹、今井宏彦、大谷浩、高桑徹也

ヒトの胎児期における心室中隔の形態的変化 倭友希、松林潤、金橋徹、今井宏彦、大谷浩、高桑徹也

Marie Ange Saizonou, Haruka Kitazawa, Toru Kanahashi, Shigehito Yamada, Tetsuya Takakuwa; Epithelial development of the urinary collecting system in the human embryo

岩佐さんの論文がCongenit Anomに掲載

岩佐さんの錐体筋の形成についての論文がCongenit Anomに受諾されました。雑誌の表紙に採用されました。


Iwasa Y, Kanahashi T, Imai H, Otani H, Yamada S, Takakuwa T, Pyramidalis muscle formation during human embryonic and early fetal periods, Congenit Anom 2024, 64, 32-39, DOI: 10.1111/cga.12551



  • 錐体筋は、前腹壁にある一対の小さな三角形の、役割の不明な筋
  • 高分解能磁気共鳴イメージングを用いて、錐体筋がいつ出現したか、その特徴は何かを明らかにすることを目的とした
  • CS18―23までの14個の胚子、59個の胎児(CRL:39.5-185.0mm)を選択した。
  • 錐体筋の形成は胚子期後期(CS20ごろ)にみられ、胎児期初期における錐体筋の頻度、左右差、性差、空間的位置は成体と同様であった。

The pyramidalis muscle (PM) is a paired small triangular muscle of the anterior abdominal wall, the physiological significance of which remains unclear. Recent studies have failed to detect this muscle during the embryonic period. Hence, the present study aimed to determine when PM emerged and reveal its features using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Fourteen embryos between Carnegie stage (CS)18 and CS23 and 59 fetuses (crown-rump length: 39.5–185.0 mm) were selected for this study. The PM was first detected in one of the three samples at CS20. It was detected in five of the seven samples (71.4%) between CS21 and CS23. Forty-eight samples (81.4%) at early fetal period had PMs on both the right and left sides, and three (5.1%) had that only on the right side. Eight samples (13.6%) had no PMs. No side-differences or sexual dimorphisms were detected. The PM length was larger than the width in most samples, although the length/width ratio varied among the samples. The PM/rectus abdominis muscle length and PM/umbilicus-pubic symphysis length ratios were almost constant, irrespective of the crown-rump length. The PM is located ventrally inferior to the rectus abdominis and closer to the medial muscle groups of the lower limb than the rectus abdominis. The present study demonstrated that PM formation occurred in the late embryonic period, and that the frequency, side differences, sex dimorphism, and spatial position of the PM in the early fetal period were similar to those in adults.

磯谷さんの修士論文がAnatomical Recordに受諾

磯谷さんの修士論文がAnatomical Recordに受諾されました。

胎児循環に特有の胎盤から心臓にむかう静脈路(臍帯静脈、門脈洞、静脈管、下大静脈)について、領域による特徴を高解像度デジタルデータ(MRI, CT)から得られた立体再構成像と組織像を用いて検討しました。

  • 胎児循環に特有の胎盤から心臓にむかう静脈路(臍帯静脈、門脈洞、静脈管、下大静脈)について領域ごとの特徴を検討
  • 胚子期から胎児期初期の29個の標本を高解像度デジタル画像化のために選択し、18個の胚を組織学的解析のために選択した。
  • 領域による特徴を高解像度デジタルデータ(MRI, CT)から得られた立体再構成像と組織像を用いて検討し明らかにした。

Isotani N, Kanahashi T, Imai H, Yoneyama A, Yamada S, Takakuwa T. Regional differences in the umbilical vein and ductus venosus at different stages of normal human development. Anat Rec, 2024, in press. DOI:10.1002/ar.25421

During the fetal period, oxygenated blood from the placenta flows through the umbilical vein (UV), portal sinus, ductus venosus (DV), and inferior vena cava (IVC) to the heart. This venous route varies regionally in many aspects. Herein, we sought to characterize the venous route’s morphological features and regional differences during embryonic and early-fetal periods. Twenty-nine specimens were selected for high-resolution digitized imaging; 18 embryos were chosen for histological analysis. The venous route showed a primitive, large, S-shaped curved morphology with regional narrowing and dilation at Carnegie stage (CS) 15. Regional differences in vessel-wall differentiation became apparent from approximately CS20. The vessel wall was poorly developed in most DV parts; local vessel-wall thickness at the inlet was first detected at CS20. The lumen of the venous route changed from a non-uniform shape to a relatively round and uniform morphology after CS21. During the early-fetal period, two large bends were observed around the passage of the umbilical ring and at the inlet of the liver. The length ratio of the extrahepatic UV to the total venous route increased. The sectional area gradually increased during embryonic development, whereas differences in sectional area between the DV, UV, and IVC became more pronounced in the early-fetal period. Furthermore, differences in the sectional area between the narrowest part of the DV and other hepatic veins and the transverse sinus became more pronounced. In summary, the present study described morphological, morphometric, and histological changes in the venous route throughout embryonic and early-fetal development, clarifying regional characteristics.


修士論文発表会が開催されました(2024.2.5). 今年から、大学院教育コースに分かれての発表となりました。

26. Formation of tendinous intersections in the human fetal rectus abdominis. MRIを用いたヒト胎児腹直筋における腱画形成過程の解析 岩佐結生

25. Comparison of Left-Right Differences in Major Blood Vessel Diameter in Human Fetuses. ヒト胎児における主要血管径の左右差の比較検討 中井尚一

24. Three-dimensional analysis of the area around the ankle joint in the human fetus ヒト胎児期における足関節周辺の三次元解析 松田幸樹