The 20th Congress of International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA2022) 2022,8/5-7, Istanbul,Turkey/Onlineで発表しました。

Ishikawa A, Nagai-Tanima M, Ishida K, Imai H, Aoyama T, Takakuwa T. Three-dimensional analysis of knee joint development during the human fetal period.

野原さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾されました

野原さんの修論がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。胚子期末の2次口蓋形成時の舌、口蓋だな、下顎(メッケル軟骨)、鼻腔の動きを主成分分析等を用いて解析しました。口蓋だな上昇前の数日間の下顎、舌が極度に前後に圧縮される時期を”approach period”として見出しました。

 Nohara A, Owaki N, Matsubayashi J, Katsube M, Imai H, Yoneyama A, Yamada S, Kanahashi T, Takakuwa T. Morphometric analysis of secondary palate development in human embryos. J Anatomy, 2022, in press, DOI:10.1111/joa.13745


Rapid shelf elevation and contact of the secondary palate and fusion reportedly occur due to a growth-related equilibrium change in the structures within the oro-nasal cavity. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate complex three-dimensional morphological changes and their effects on rapid movements, such as shelf elevation and contact, and fusion. Morphological changes during secondary palate formation were analyzed using high-resolution digitalized imaging data (phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance images) obtained from 22 human embryonic and fetal samples. The three-dimensional images of the oro-nasal structures, including the maxilla, palate, pterygoid hamulus, tongue, Meckel’s cartilage, nasal cavity, pharyngeal cavity, and nasal septum, were reconstructed manually.

palatal shelves were not elevated in all the samples at Carnegie stage (CS)21 and CS22 and in three samples at CS23. In contrast, the palatal shelves were elevated but not in contact in one sample at CS23. Further, the palatal shelves were elevated and fused in the remaining four samples at CS23 and all three samples from the early fetal period. For each sample, 70 landmarks were subjected to Procrustes and principal component (PC) analysis. PC-1 accounted for 67.4% of the extracted gross changes before and after shelf elevations. Notably, the PC-1 values of the negative and positive value groups differed significantly. The PC-2 value changed during the phases in which the change in the PC-1 value was unnaturally slow and stopped at CS22 and the first half of CS23. This period, defined as the “approach period”, corresponds to the time before dynamic changes occur as the palatal shelves elevate, the tongue and mandibular tip change their position and shape, and secondary palatal shelves contact and fuse. During the “approach period”, measurements of PC-2 changes showed that structures on the mandible (Meckel’s cartilage and tongue) and maxilla (palate and nasal cavity) did not change positions, albeit both groups of structures appeared to be compressed anterior-posteriorly. However, during and after shelf elevation, measurements of PC-1 changes showed significant changes between maxillary and mandibular structures, particularly positioning of the shelves above the tongue and protrusion of the tongue and mandible. These results suggest an active role for Meckel’s cartilage growth in repositioning the tongue to facilitate shelf elevation. The present data representing three distinct phases of secondary palate closure in humans can advance the understanding of morphological growth changes occurring before and after the horizontal positioning of palatal shelves and their fusion to close the secondary palate in humans successfully.


第62回日本先天異常学会で発表しました(‘22,7/29-31, 金沢)



Analysis of human embryos and fetuses using three-dimensional digitalized images



藤井 瀬菜、村中 太河、松林 潤、米山 明男、兵藤 一行、山田 重人、高桑徹也; ヒト胚子期における気管支樹の三次元的変化の定量的検討
The quantitative analysis of morphological change of the human embrionic bronchial tree

金橋 徹、今井宏彦、大谷 浩、山田重人、米山明男、高桑徹也; 拡散テンソルイメージングを応用したヒト胎児横隔膜形成の三次元的解析
Three-dimensional morphogenesis of the human diaphragm during the late embryonic and early fetal period: Analysis using diffusion tensor imaging


JOSKAS-JOSSM 2022 第14回日本関節鏡・膝・スポーツ整形外科学会/第48回日本整形外科スポーツ医学会学術集会で発表しました。(札幌コンベンションセンター、北海道、2022,6/16〜18)

石川 葵、谷間 桃子、石田 かのん、青山 朋樹「ヒト胎児期における膝関節発生の三次元的解析」

掛谷さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾


掛谷さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。

生理的な消化管の臍帯内脱出の還納について、これまでの定説(CRL40mmころに短時間で還納される、消化管はループを形成したまま還納する(slip-stack theory)を覆す内容の画期的論文です。

発生途中、消化管は臍帯腔内に脱出し、CRL40mmころに短時間で還納されます。還納の仕方は、これまで消化管の動きを中心に研究されており、slide-stack model(消化管はループを形成したまま還納するというモデル)が優勢でした。


KakeyaM, Matsubayashi J, Kanahashi T, Männer J, Yamada S, Takakuwa T. The return process of physiological umbilical herniation in human fetuses: the possible role of the vascular tree and umbilical ring. J Anatomy 2022, in press


The human intestine elongates during the early fetal period, herniates into the extraembryonic coelom (EC), and subsequently returns to the abdominal cavity (AC). The process by which the intestinal loop returns to the abdomen remains unclear. This study aimed to document positional changes in the intestinal tract with the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and branches in 3D to elucidate the intestinal loop return process (transition phase). Serial histological cross-sections from human fetuses (crown–rump length [CRL] range: 30–50 mm) in the herniation (n = 1), transition (n = 7), and return (n = 2) phases were selected from the Blechschmidt Collection. The distribution of the SMA trunk and all intestinal and sister branches entering the intestines was visualized so that positional changes in branches were continuous from the herniation to return phases. Positional changes in SMA branches proceeded in an orderly and structured manner; this is essential for continuous blood supply via the SMA to the intestine during transition and for safe intestinal return. Changes in the SMA distribution proceeded prior to the detection of initiation of intestinal tract return, which might start earlier and last much longer than our consensus (i.e., that the return of the herniated intestine begins when the CRL is approximately 40 mm and ends within a short time). In the cross-section of the umbilical ring in the herniation and transition phases, one proximal limb and one distal limb were observed with SMA intestinal branches, which were fully packed in the umbilical ring. The SMA branches were aligned from inferior to superior along the SMA main trunk. In the herniation phase, the distribution of 3rd–13th branches aligned from proximal inferior medial to distal superior left with a slight spiral in the EC, the tips of which suggested an orderly running course of the small intestine. In the transition phase, SMA branches running across the umbilical ring that fed the small intestine were observed, suggesting that the intestine was uncoiled and ran across the umbilical ring almost vertically. The estimated curvature value supported the phenomenon of uncoiling at the umbilical ring; the value at the umbilical ring was lesser than that in the AC and EC. During the transition phase, the proximal and distal limbs transversely ran side by side in the AC, umbilical ring, limbs on the cranial side, and mesentery on the caudal side. The SMA trunk and its branches ran in parallel, cranially to caudally aligned in the mesentery. This layout of the umbilical ring was maintained during the transition phase. In the return phase, the SMA trunk was gently curved from the upper left to the lower right of the AC; around 12 branches spread with a winding staircase appearance. The intestinal tract reached its definitive position immediately after all tissues crossed the umbilical ring and released any restriction. Each SMA branch and the corresponding region of the intestinal tract form a unit and change their position, though the conformation may change within each unit when running across the umbilical ring. We suggest that the slide–stack model requires revision.

熊野くんの卒業研究がAnatomical Recに掲載

熊野くんの卒業研究がAnatomical Recに受諾されました。おめでとうございます。


Kumano Y, Tanaka S, Sakamoto R, Kanahashi T, Imai H, Yoneyama A, Yamada S, Takakuwa T. Upper arm posture during human embryonic and fetal development. Anatomical Rec 2022, 305 1682-1691, https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.24796


The upper extremity posture is characteristic of each Carnegie stage (CS), particularly between CS18 and CS23. Morphogenesis of the shoulder joint complex largely contributes to posture, although the exact position of the shoulder joints has not been described. In the present study, the position of the upper arm was first quantitatively measured, and the contribution of the position of the shoulder girdle, including the scapula and glenohumeral (GH) joint, was then evaluated. Twenty-nine human fetal specimens from the Kyoto Collection were used in this study. The morphogenesis and three-dimensional position of the shoulder girdle and humerus were analyzed using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Both abduction and flexion of the upper arm displayed a local maximum at CS20. Abduction gradually decreased until the middle fetal period, which was a prominent feature. Flexion was less than 90° at the local maximum, which was discrepant between appearance and measurement value in our study. The scapular body exhibited a unique position, being oriented internally and in the upward direction, with the glenoid cavity oriented cranially and ventrally. However, this unique scapular position had little effect on the upper arm posture because the angle of the scapula on the thorax was canceled as the angle of the GH joint had changed to a mirror image of that angle. Our present study suggested that measuring the angle of the scapula on the thorax and that of the GH joint using sonography leads to improved staging of the human embryo.

Early fetal period MRI_DTI Atlasを作成中

Early fetal period DTI atlas (画面をクリック)


藤井さん、村中くんの博士論文がJ Anatomyの’top cited article (2020-21)’に選出

藤井さん、村中くんの研究がJ Anatomyの’top cited article (2020-21)’に選ばれました。多くの研究者に読んで、評価していただいた結果と思います。おめでとうございます。

44. Fujii S, Muranaka T, Matsubayash J, Yamada S, Yoneyama A, Takakuwa T. The bronchial tree of the human embryo: an analysis of variations in the bronchial segments. J Anatomy 2020, 237, 311-322. doi: 10.1111/joa.13199.