2022年8月
1234567
891011121314
15161718192021
22232425262728
293031  

野原さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾されました

野原さんの修論がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。胚子期末の2次口蓋形成時の舌、口蓋だな、下顎(メッケル軟骨)、鼻腔の動きを主成分分析等を用いて解析しました。口蓋だな上昇前の数日間の下顎、舌が極度に前後に圧縮される時期を”approach period”として見出しました。

 Nohara A, Owaki N, Matsubayashi J, Katsube M, Imai H, Yoneyama A, Yamada S, Kanahashi T, Takakuwa T. Morphometric analysis of secondary palate development in human embryos. J Anatomy, 2022, in press, DOI:10.1111/joa.13745

続きを読む

Rapid shelf elevation and contact of the secondary palate and fusion reportedly occur due to a growth-related equilibrium change in the structures within the oro-nasal cavity. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate complex three-dimensional morphological changes and their effects on rapid movements, such as shelf elevation and contact, and fusion. Morphological changes during secondary palate formation were analyzed using high-resolution digitalized imaging data (phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance images) obtained from 22 human embryonic and fetal samples. The three-dimensional images of the oro-nasal structures, including the maxilla, palate, pterygoid hamulus, tongue, Meckel’s cartilage, nasal cavity, pharyngeal cavity, and nasal septum, were reconstructed manually.

palatal shelves were not elevated in all the samples at Carnegie stage (CS)21 and CS22 and in three samples at CS23. In contrast, the palatal shelves were elevated but not in contact in one sample at CS23. Further, the palatal shelves were elevated and fused in the remaining four samples at CS23 and all three samples from the early fetal period. For each sample, 70 landmarks were subjected to Procrustes and principal component (PC) analysis. PC-1 accounted for 67.4% of the extracted gross changes before and after shelf elevations. Notably, the PC-1 values of the negative and positive value groups differed significantly. The PC-2 value changed during the phases in which the change in the PC-1 value was unnaturally slow and stopped at CS22 and the first half of CS23. This period, defined as the “approach period”, corresponds to the time before dynamic changes occur as the palatal shelves elevate, the tongue and mandibular tip change their position and shape, and secondary palatal shelves contact and fuse. During the “approach period”, measurements of PC-2 changes showed that structures on the mandible (Meckel’s cartilage and tongue) and maxilla (palate and nasal cavity) did not change positions, albeit both groups of structures appeared to be compressed anterior-posteriorly. However, during and after shelf elevation, measurements of PC-1 changes showed significant changes between maxillary and mandibular structures, particularly positioning of the shelves above the tongue and protrusion of the tongue and mandible. These results suggest an active role for Meckel’s cartilage growth in repositioning the tongue to facilitate shelf elevation. The present data representing three distinct phases of secondary palate closure in humans can advance the understanding of morphological growth changes occurring before and after the horizontal positioning of palatal shelves and their fusion to close the secondary palate in humans successfully.

掛谷さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾

生理的臍帯ヘルニア還納途中のSMA分岐の分布

掛谷さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。

生理的な消化管の臍帯内脱出の還納について、これまでの定説(CRL40mmころに短時間で還納される、消化管はループを形成したまま還納する(slip-stack theory)を覆す内容の画期的論文です。

発生途中、消化管は臍帯腔内に脱出し、CRL40mmころに短時間で還納されます。還納の仕方は、これまで消化管の動きを中心に研究されており、slide-stack model(消化管はループを形成したまま還納するというモデル)が優勢でした。

複雑な小腸の走行を追跡しても限界があることを認識し、この論文では消化管を栄養する上腸間膜動脈とその小腸枝の走行を正確に追うことで、還納経過中の小腸の位置や形状、走行をしめすとともに、血管系の分布、形状変化も示すことができました。還納は腸管の動きとして認識される時期に先行する血管系の位置の変化により開始され、これまでのコンセンサスよりも早く始まることを示しました。臍帯輪通過時には、消化管とそれを栄養する動脈の走行は形状を変えます。消化管はループがほどけ、臍帯輪を2本以上の消化管が通過することはありません。また、臍帯輪において消化管、腸間膜、動脈は整然とならび、どの個体でもほぼ一定です。この組織だった配置は腸管への血行が安全に確保されるために必要とかんがえられます。

KakeyaM, Matsubayashi J, Kanahashi T, Männer J, Yamada S, Takakuwa T. The return process of physiological umbilical herniation in human fetuses: the possible role of the vascular tree and umbilical ring. J Anatomy 2022, in press

Abstract

The human intestine elongates during the early fetal period, herniates into the extraembryonic coelom (EC), and subsequently returns to the abdominal cavity (AC). The process by which the intestinal loop returns to the abdomen remains unclear. This study aimed to document positional changes in the intestinal tract with the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and branches in 3D to elucidate the intestinal loop return process (transition phase). Serial histological cross-sections from human fetuses (crown–rump length [CRL] range: 30–50 mm) in the herniation (n = 1), transition (n = 7), and return (n = 2) phases were selected from the Blechschmidt Collection. The distribution of the SMA trunk and all intestinal and sister branches entering the intestines was visualized so that positional changes in branches were continuous from the herniation to return phases. Positional changes in SMA branches proceeded in an orderly and structured manner; this is essential for continuous blood supply via the SMA to the intestine during transition and for safe intestinal return. Changes in the SMA distribution proceeded prior to the detection of initiation of intestinal tract return, which might start earlier and last much longer than our consensus (i.e., that the return of the herniated intestine begins when the CRL is approximately 40 mm and ends within a short time). In the cross-section of the umbilical ring in the herniation and transition phases, one proximal limb and one distal limb were observed with SMA intestinal branches, which were fully packed in the umbilical ring. The SMA branches were aligned from inferior to superior along the SMA main trunk. In the herniation phase, the distribution of 3rd–13th branches aligned from proximal inferior medial to distal superior left with a slight spiral in the EC, the tips of which suggested an orderly running course of the small intestine. In the transition phase, SMA branches running across the umbilical ring that fed the small intestine were observed, suggesting that the intestine was uncoiled and ran across the umbilical ring almost vertically. The estimated curvature value supported the phenomenon of uncoiling at the umbilical ring; the value at the umbilical ring was lesser than that in the AC and EC. During the transition phase, the proximal and distal limbs transversely ran side by side in the AC, umbilical ring, limbs on the cranial side, and mesentery on the caudal side. The SMA trunk and its branches ran in parallel, cranially to caudally aligned in the mesentery. This layout of the umbilical ring was maintained during the transition phase. In the return phase, the SMA trunk was gently curved from the upper left to the lower right of the AC; around 12 branches spread with a winding staircase appearance. The intestinal tract reached its definitive position immediately after all tissues crossed the umbilical ring and released any restriction. Each SMA branch and the corresponding region of the intestinal tract form a unit and change their position, though the conformation may change within each unit when running across the umbilical ring. We suggest that the slide–stack model requires revision.

熊野くんの卒業研究がAnatomical Recに掲載

熊野くんの卒業研究がAnatomical Recに受諾されました。おめでとうございます。

上肢、下肢の肢位について、胚子期後期、胎児期初期、中期について検討しました。そのうち上肢の肢位について今回まとめました。上腕骨と体幹、体幹と肩甲骨、肩甲骨と上腕と解剖学的にわけて検討し肢位への影響を検討しています。

Kumano Y, Tanaka S, Sakamoto R, Kanahashi T, Imai H, Yoneyama A, Yamada S, Takakuwa T. Upper arm posture during human embryonic and fetal development. Anatomical Rec 2022, 305 1682-1691, https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.24796

Abstract

The upper extremity posture is characteristic of each Carnegie stage (CS), particularly between CS18 and CS23. Morphogenesis of the shoulder joint complex largely contributes to posture, although the exact position of the shoulder joints has not been described. In the present study, the position of the upper arm was first quantitatively measured, and the contribution of the position of the shoulder girdle, including the scapula and glenohumeral (GH) joint, was then evaluated. Twenty-nine human fetal specimens from the Kyoto Collection were used in this study. The morphogenesis and three-dimensional position of the shoulder girdle and humerus were analyzed using phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Both abduction and flexion of the upper arm displayed a local maximum at CS20. Abduction gradually decreased until the middle fetal period, which was a prominent feature. Flexion was less than 90° at the local maximum, which was discrepant between appearance and measurement value in our study. The scapular body exhibited a unique position, being oriented internally and in the upward direction, with the glenoid cavity oriented cranially and ventrally. However, this unique scapular position had little effect on the upper arm posture because the angle of the scapula on the thorax was canceled as the angle of the GH joint had changed to a mirror image of that angle. Our present study suggested that measuring the angle of the scapula on the thorax and that of the GH joint using sonography leads to improved staging of the human embryo.

山崎さんの修士論文がCells Tissues Organsに掲載

山崎さんの修士論文がCells Tissues Organsに受諾されました。

気管軟骨、喉頭軟骨の形態形成について軟骨の発生段階を立体的に細かく示しました。初期の軟骨形成の中心は左右に1個ずつあり、癒合した後に側方に広がる等、新たな知見を得ました。

54. Yamazaki Y, Kanahashi T, Yamada S, Männer J, Takakuwa T. Three-dimensional analysis of human laryngeal and tracheobronchial cartilages during the late embryonic and early fetal period. Cells Tissues Organs, 2021 in press

Abstract

Laryngeal and tracheobronchial cartilages are present as unique U-shaped forms around the respiratory tract and contribute to the formation of rigid structures required for the airway. Certain discrepancies still exist concerning cartilage formation in humans. To visualize the accurate timeline of cartilage formation, tracheobronchial and laryngeal cartilages were 3D reconstructed based on serial tissue sections during the embryonic period (Carnegie stage [CS] 18–23) and early fetal period (crown rump length [CRL] = 35–45 mm). The developmental phases of the cartilage were estimated by histological studies, which were performed on the reconstructed tissue sections. The hyoid greater horns were recognizable at CS18 (phase 2). Fusion of 2 chondrification centers in the mid-sagittal region was observed at CS19 in the hyoid bone, at CS20 in the cricoid cartilage, and in the specimen with CRL 39 mm in the thyroid cartilage. Phase 3 differentiation was observed at the median part of the hyoid body at CS19, which was the earliest among all other laryngeal and tracheobronchial cartilages. Most of the laryngeal cartilages were in phase 3 differentiation at CS22 and in phase 4 differentiation at CS23. The U-shaped tracheobronchial cartilages with phase 2 differentiation covered the entire extrapulmonary region at CS20. Phase 3 differentiation started on the median section and propagates laterally at CS21. The tracheobronchial cartilages may form simultaneously during the embryonic period at CS22-23 and early fetal periods, similar to adults in number and distribution. The spatial propagation of the tracheal cartilage differentiation provided in the present study indicates that cartilage differentiation may have propagated differently on phase 2 and phase 3. This study demonstrates a comprehensible timeline of cartilage formation. Such detailed information of the timeline of cartilage formation would be useful to improve our understanding of the development and pathophysiology of congenital airway anomalies.

寺島さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに掲載

胚子期末大脳におけるプレサブプレートの3次元分布

寺島さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。おめでとうございます。胎児期のみに出現し、大脳皮質の形成、自発活動の開始に関わる可能性のあるプレサブプレートの形成について、連続組織画像を用いて立体的に検討しました。

Terashima, M., Ishikawa A., Männer J., Yamada S.&Takakuwa T. (2021) Early development of the cortical layers in the human brain. Journal of Anatomy, 239, 1039–1049. https://doi.org/10.1111/joa.13488

 

Abstract

The cortical plate (CP) first appears at seven postconceptional weeks (pcw), when it splits the preexisting preplate into two layers, the marginal zone and the presubplate (pSP). Although three-dimensional (3D) analysis using fetal magnetic resonance imaging and two-dimensional tissue observations have been reported, there have been no studies analyzing the early development of the layer structure corresponding to the pSP stage in 3D. Here, we reconstructed 3-D models of the brain with a focus on the cortical layers in pSP stage. To achieve this, we digitized serial tissue sections of embryos between CS20 and CS23 from the Kyoto Collection (n = 7, approximately 7–8.5 pcw), and specimens at early fetal phase from the Blechschmidt Collection (n = 2, approximately 9.5–12 pcw, crown rump length [CRL] 39 and 64 mm). We observed tissue sections and 3D images and performed quantitative analysis of the thickness, surface area, and volume. Because the boundary between pSP and the intermediate zone (IZ) could not be distinguished in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, the two layers were analyzed together as a single layer in this study. The histology of the layers was observed from CS21 and became distinct at CS22. Subsequently, we observed the 3-D models; pSP-IZ was present in a midlateral region of the cerebral wall at CS21, and an expansion centered around this region was observed after CS22. We observed it over the entire cerebral hemisphere at early fetal phase (CRL 39 mm). The thickness of pSP-IZ was visible in 3D and was greater in the midlateral region. At the end of the pSP stage (CRL 64 mm), the thick region expanded to lateral, superior, and posterior regions around the primordium of the insula. While, the region near the basal ganglia was not included in the thickest 10% of the pSP-IZ area. Middle cerebral artery was found in the midlateral region of the cerebral wall, near the area where pSP-IZ was observed. Feature of layer structure growth was revealed by quantitative assessment as thickness, surface area, and volume. The maximum thickness value of pSP-IZ and CP increased significantly according to CRL, whereas the median value increased slightly. The layer structure appeared to grow and spread thin, rather than thickening during early development, which is characteristic during pSP stages. The surface area of the cerebral total tissue, CP, and pSP-IZ increased in proportion to the square of CRL. The surface area of CP and pSP-IZ approached that of the total tissue at the end of the pSP stage. Volume of each layer increased in proportion to the cube of CRL. pSP-IZ and CP constituted over 50% of the total tissue in volume at the end of the pSP stages. We could visualize the growth of pSP-IZ in 3D and quantify it during pSP stage. Our approach allowed us to observe the process of rapid expansion of pSP-IZ from the midlateral regions of the cerebral wall, which subsequently becomes the insula.

ヒト胎児期初期の脳の形態形成についての論文がJ Anatomyに掲載

ヒト胎児期初期の脳の形態形成についての論文がJ Anatomyに掲載されました。5年以上かけて、ようやくまとめることができました。

52. Takakuwa T, Shiraishi N, Terashima M,Yamanaka M, Okamoto I, Imai H, Ishizu K, Yamada S, Ishikawa A, Kanahashi T. Morphology and morphometry of the human early fetal brain: A three-dimensional analysis. J Anatomy; 239 (2) 498-516, 2021, doi.org/10.1111/joa.13433

Abstract

Morphometric analyses in the early foetal phase (9-13 postconceptional week) are critical for evaluating normal brain growth. In this study, we assessed sequential morphological and morphometric changes in the foetal brain during this period using high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans from 21 samples preserved at Kyoto University. MRI sectional views (coronal, mid-sagittal, and horizontal sections) and 3D reconstructions of the whole brain revealed sequential changes in its external morphology and internal structures. The cerebrum’s gross external view, lateral ventricle and choroid plexus, cerebral wall, basal ganglia and thalamus, and corpus callosum were assessed. The development of the cerebral cortex, white matter microstructure, and basal ganglia can be well-characterized using MRI scans. The insula became apparent and deeply impressed as brain growth progressed. A thick, densely packed cellular ventricular/subventricular zone and ganglionic eminence became apparent at high signal intensity. We detected the emergence of important landmarks which may be candidates in the subdivision processes during the early foetal period; the corpus callosum was first detected in the sample with crown-rump length (CRL) 62 mm. A primary sulcus on the medial part of the cortex (cingulate sulcus) was observed in the sample with CRL 114 mm. In the cerebellum, the hemispheres, posterolateral fissure, union of the cerebellar halves, and definition of the vermis were observed in the sample with CRL 43.5 mm, alongside the appearance of a primary fissure in the sample with CRL 56 mm and the prepyramidal fissure in the sample with CRL 75 mm. The volumetric, linear, and angle measurements revealed the comprehensive and regional development, growth, and differentiation of brain structures during the early foetal phase. The early foetal period was neither morphologically nor morphometrically uniform. The cerebral proportion (length/height) and the angle of cerebrum to the standard line at the lateral view of the cerebrum, which may reflect the growth and C-shape formation of the cerebrum, may be a candidate for subdividing the early foetal period. Future precise analyses must establish a staging system for the brain during the early foetal period. This study provides insights into brain structure, allowing for a correlation with functional maturation and facilitating the early detection of brain damage and abnormal development.

北沢さんの修士論文がJ Anatomyに掲載

北沢さんの修論がJ Anatomyに受諾されました。ヒト胚子期の腎臓の形成を、尿路樹形成と糸球体形成との関連性に着目し詳細に検討しました。

<修士論文の概要>

Kitazawa H, Fujii S, Ishiyama H, Matsubayashi J, Ishikawa A, Yamada S, Takakuwa T. Nascent nephrons during human embryonic development: Spatial distribution and relationship with urinary collecting system. J Anatomy 2021; 238, 455-466, in press.DOI: 10.1111/JOA.13308

Abstract

The two major components of the metanephros, the urinary collecting system (UCS) and nephron, have different developmental courses. Nephron numbers vary widely between species and individuals and are determined during fetal development. Furthermore, the development of nascent nephrons may contribute to the expansion of the proximal part of the UCS. This study investigated the distribution of nascent nephrons and their interrelationship with UCS branches during human embryogenesis. We obtained samples from 31 human embryos between Carnegie stages (CSs) 19 and 23 from the Kyoto Collection at the Congenital Anomaly Research Center of Kyoto University in Japan. Serial histological sections of the metanephros with the UCS were digitalized and computationally reconstructed for morphological and quantitative analyses. The three-dimensional (3D) coordinates for the positions of all UCS branch points, end points, attachment points to nascent nephrons (APs), and renal corpuscles (RCs) were recorded and related to the developmental phase. Phases were categorized from phase 1 to phase 5 according to the histological analysis. The UCS branching continued until RCs first appeared (at CS19). End branches with attached nascent nephrons (EB-AP[+]) were observed after CS19 during the fifth generation or higher during the embryonic period. The range of end branch and EB-AP(+) generation numbers was broad, and the number of RCs increased with the embryonic stage, reaching 273.8 ± 104.2 at CS23. The number of RCs connected to the UCS exceeded the number not connected to the UCS by CS23. The 3D reconstructions revealed RCs to be distributed around end branches, close to the surface of the metanephros. The RCs connected to the UCS were located away from the surface. The APs remained near the end point, whereas connecting ducts that become renal tubules were found to elongate with maturation of the RCs. Nascent nephrons in RC phases 3-5 were preferentially attached to the end branches at CS22 and CS23. The mean generation number of EB-AP(−) was higher than that of EB-AP(+) in 19 of 22 metanephros and was statistically significant for eight metanephros at CS22 and CS23. The ratio of the deviated branching pattern was almost constant (29%). The ratio of the even branching pattern with EB-AP(+) and EB-AP(+) to the total even branching pattern increased with CS (9.2% at CS21, 19.2% at CS22, and 45.4% at CS23). Our data suggest the following: EB-AP(+) may not branch further at the tip (i.e., by tip splitting), but branching beneath the AP (lateral branching) continues throughout the embryonic stages. Our study provides valuable data that can further the understanding of the interactions between the UCS and nascent nephrons during human embryogenesis.

藤井さんの研究がPLoS One に掲載

藤井さんの研究がPLoS One に受諾されました。

ヒトの気管支の分岐様式についてmonopodial(側方分岐)か dipodial(先端分岐)かについて、気管支の枝の長さを基本に解析しました。

Fujii S, Muranaka T, Matsubayashi J, Yamada S, Yoneyama A, Takakuwa T. Bronchial tree of the human embryo: categorization of the branching mode as monopodial and dipodial, PLoS One 2021, Published: January 15, 2021, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0245558

Abstract

Some human organs are composed of bifurcated structures. Two simple branching modes—monopodial and dipodial—have been proposed. With monopodial branching, child branches extend from the sidewall of the parent branch. With dipodial branching, the tip of the bronchus bifurcates. However, the branching modes of the human bronchial tree have not been elucidated precisely. A total of 48 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 15 and CS23 belonging to the Kyoto Collection were used to acquire imaging data with phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. Bronchial trees of all samples were three-dimensionally reconstructed from the image data. We analyzed the lobar bronchus, segmental bronchus, and subsegmental bronchus. After calculating each bronchus length, we categorized the branching mode of the analyzed bronchi based on whether the parent bronchus was divided after generation of the analyzed bronchi. All lobar bronchi were formed with monopodial branching. Twenty-five bifurcations were analyzed to categorize the branching mode of the segmental and subsegmental bronchi; 22 bifurcations were categorized as monopodial branching, two bifurcations were not categorized as any branching pattern, and the only lingular bronchus that bifurcated from the left superior lobar bronchus was categorized as dipodial branching. The left superior lobar bronchus did not shorten during the period from CS17 or CS18, when the child branch was generated, to CS23. All analyzed bronchi that could be categorized, except for one, were categorized as monopodial branching. The branching modes of the lobar bronchus and segmental bronchus were similar in the mouse lung and human lung; however, the modes of the subsegmental bronchi were different. Furthermore, remodeling, such as shrinkage of the bronchus, was not observed during the analysis period. Our three-dimensional reconstructions allowed precise calculation of the bronchus length, thereby improving the knowledge of branching morphogenesis in the human embryonic lung.